- Substitution: a 🖼 is worth a thousand words, so why not prefer it to 📰?
- Reinforcement: the use of repetition to indicate strength of feeling 💯 💯 💯
- Contradiction: undermining what has been written through irony or sarcasm 🤔 🙃
- Meta-comment: the use of emoji to clarify the writer’s emotional state or attitude to what they are writing 🤷♀️
- Emphasis: underlining or emboldening, e.g. the word ‘weekend’ next to 🍷 or 🍻
- Discourse management: 🆒 the way emoji are used as punctuation in a conversation, usually appearing at the beginning or end of a statement 🔚
(adapted from Vyvyan Evans’ book The Emoji Code.)